What exactly is Arthritis in dogs?

Updated 16 April 2024
Read time: 4 mins

Arthritis is a very common progressive disease that affects dogs, especially middle-aged to senior individuals. The majority of older dogs will be affected. It is, in its simplest form, an inflammation of the joints. While signs will be subtle at first, as the disease worsens dogs can begin to visibly struggle with their mobility.

What causes arthritis and what are the symptoms?

Arthritis tends to be a genetic condition; a dog is more likely to develop it if either of their parents had it. This is why it is important to screen breeding stock for joint problems. As well as genetics, possible causes would include:

  • Obesity, which puts additional pressure on a dog’s joints
  • Over-exercising, especially on hard surfaces or when the movement is repetitive (jogging on pavement)
  • Old injuries e.g. a previous car accident or bone fracture
  • Underlying joint disease such as Hip Dysplasia, Elbow Dysplasia or OCD
  • Some breeds are more predisposed to arthritis, including the German Shepherd and Labrador Retriever
  • The older a dog, the more likely they are to be affected

How is arthritis diagnosed in dogs?

We usually check for arthritis when an owner picks up on some changes in their dog. They may notice they are taking longer to stand up, walk with a stiff gait, limp from time to time or struggle to keep up on walks. More subtle signs can include licking at joints and grumpiness.

A vet may pick up on the fact that there is some muscle wastage in places such as above the hips. When feeling the joints, a vet might detect a reduced range of motion and some creaking and clicking joints (‘crepitus’). Dogs may dislike having their joint flexed and extended.

We can confirm arthritis with diagnostic imaging studies such as x-rays. This can be useful to rule out other causes of a dog’s symptoms such as a joint infection or bone cancer. 

Importantly, the severity of the arthritis on x-rays doesn’t always correlate with the signs. Some dogs may have minor changes on an x-ray but very obvious signs of joint disease. We should treat the patient and not their x-rays.

Is there a treatment for arthritis?

Sadly, there is no cure for this debilitating joint disease. Our aim is to slow down the progression and keep affected dogs as comfortable and content as we can.

The ideal treatment will depend on the individual and usually consists of a variety of things including:

  • Prescription medicine such as pain relief and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. Importantly, these will likely have to be given lifelong. Some owners stop the medicine once it has started to work but those with moderate to severe arthritis usually need medicating daily.
  • Cartrophen injections (Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium). These are generally given every week for 4 weeks. This is usually repeated at 6 monthly intervals. This treatment can preserve joint cartilage and is effective in both acute and chronic arthritis.
  • Joint supplements such as Pooch & Mutt’s Mobile Bones. Good quality supplements will contain a variety of joint supportive ingredients including vitamins, minerals and other natural substances like MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane). MSM is a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory which helps keep arthritic dogs stable.
  • A Joint supportive food. Pooch & Mutt’s Joint Care food contains about 45% salmon; a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids which can help reduce joint inflammation. This food is also packed with Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulphate; supplements which can prevent cartilage breakdown and even restore cartilage. 
  • Interventions such as physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, massage and acupuncture. Some of these therapies are only available at specialist referral centres and not all are covered on pet insurance, so do discuss these with your dog’s vet.

Is there anything I can do to stop my dog from getting arthritis?

While those destined to develop arthritis due to their genes or conformation will likely get it regardless of what we do, we can slow down the process.

All dogs should be kept at a slim weight and require a consistent exercise routine. Avoid being a ‘weekend warrior’. A weekend warrior is someone who doesn’t have time to walk their dogs during the week and overcompensates with long hikes on the weekend; this puts a lot of pressure on joints.

Joint food and supplements can be started from a young age, ensuring your dog’s joints have all the building blocks needed to stay as healthy as they can.

Though arthritis is a frustrating condition to deal with, there are plenty of things an owner can do to help keep their pet comfortable. Be cautious not to ‘diagnose’ arthritis at home and always consult with your vet if you have concerns about your dog’s mobility.

Comments (2)

All the advice and recomendations in this article are spot on. Its a journey my border collie has been going through. The problem I have is, from being very active her time/distance walking ball and frisbee taken away, she has put on a lot of weight. Despite slimming dog food minimising etc. Her mind is willing to do all of the above but her back end cant. What more can I do?

Muriel - Aug 19 2022
Pooch Admin

Hi Muriel, This is a very common issue but we need to be very on the ball to prevent obesity as any excess weight puts excess pressure on the joints and makes dogs much less able to cope with the arthritis. We can still do low impact exercise like hydrotherapy/swimming and slow, off lead walks on a soft surface.
We need to be strict with calories, as weight gain means we are giving more calories than the body needs. If over weight, we need to reduce the amount of slimming food being given. Do also watch for any ‘extra calories’ like dental sticks, chews and human food. It can help to keep her mind busy with food puzzles (use dinner allowance rather than extra calories for this), brain games, interactive toys, mini training sessions etc. This is especially important for intelligent breeds like the collie. Thanks!

Team Pooch - Aug 19 2022

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